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压疮

ID: ANH12069chis
医学动画文字记录:压疮,也称为褥疮,是指当你长时间以一个姿势坐着或躺着时,发生损伤的皮肤区域。这些损伤最常发生在骨骼突出(骨骼与皮肤靠近)的部位。包括足跟、踝、臀部、尾骨或肘部。对其中一个区域的持续压力会压缩为皮肤提供氧气和重要营养的血管。没有足够的血流量,皮肤细胞最终会死亡,从而形成压疮。压疮根据严重程度来分类。Ⅰ期压疮表现为皮肤发红、发炎,按压变色部位不会变白。Ⅱ期压疮表现为水疱或开放性溃疡。损伤周围的区域可能会发红和发炎。Ⅲ期压疮表现为全层皮肤缺损,出现凹坑状,并延伸到皮下脂肪层。Ⅳ期压疮是最严重的。Ⅳ期压疮是一种全层皮肤损伤,向下延伸到肌肉或骨骼。2007年,美国国家压疮咨询委员会又增加了两期压疮。可疑深部组织损伤期压疮和不可分期压疮。可疑深部组织损伤期压疮表现为皮肤出现褐红色或紫色,可能有充血的水泡。看起来像是皮下的软组织损伤。不可分期压疮表现为全层组织缺损。然而,由于溃疡被坏死组织所覆盖,因此无法确定组织损伤的量。为了防止压疮感染,医生会用水和温和的肥皂水或生理盐水清洗伤口。如果病情很严重,医生会进行清创,或者手术去除坏死组织。为了保护伤口和使伤口保持水分,医生可能会用专门的绷带包扎伤口。

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