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妊娠期糖尿病

ID: ANH13110chis
医学动画文字记录:如果在怀孕期间患有妊娠糖尿病,血液中的糖含量会高于正常水平。血液中的糖叫做葡萄糖。人的体内有一种叫做胰岛素的激素,当它与细胞上的受体结合时,它就像一把锁上的钥匙,胰岛素打开细胞,葡萄糖就能进入细胞。细胞可以利用葡萄糖产生正常运转所需的能量。一个叫做胰腺的腺体制造细胞利用葡萄糖所需的所有胰岛素。妊娠期糖尿病的准确病因尚不清楚。将胎儿与子宫连接的器官叫做胎盘,胎盘会产生激素,阻止胰岛素将葡萄糖进入细胞。因此,血液中的葡萄糖会高于正常水平,这种情况被称为高血糖症。高血糖是任何类型糖尿病的标志。如果血糖水平没有保持在正常范围内,孕妇可能会出现并发症,如高血压。此外,早产和剖宫产的风险也会增加,剖宫产是指医生通过腹部切口为孕妇接生。宝宝在出生后不久也可能有出现并发症的风险,包括出生体重超标(称为巨大儿)、低血糖、宝宝皮肤变黄(称为黄疸)和呼吸困难。妊娠期糖尿病通常会在宝宝出生后消失。治疗妊娠期糖尿病的目标是将血糖保持在正常的目标范围内。孕妇可以和医生或注册营养师一起制定一个健康的饮食计划。体育活动和锻炼也可以帮助将血糖水平保持在正常目标范围内。医生可能会要求孕妇定期用血糖仪检测血糖水平。要检测血糖水平,需要在血糖仪上插入一条试纸。然后用手指滴一滴血在试纸上。血糖仪将测定和显示血糖水平。如果有妊娠期糖尿病,美国糖尿病协会建议血糖水平的目标范围如下:饭前95或更低,饭后1小时140或更低,饭后2小时120或更低。向医生咨询具体的目标范围。如果饮食和锻炼不能使血糖水平保持在正常的目标范围内,医生可能会开具胰岛素,并告诉孕妇如何给自己注射胰岛素。可以通过孕前咨询来帮助预防妊娠期糖尿病,在怀孕前咨询产科医生,制定一个健康的怀孕计划,在怀孕前减掉多余的体重,在怀孕前和怀孕期间定期锻炼,健康饮食。

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