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心房纤颤

ID: ANH11047chis
医学动画文字记录:心房颤动是心律失常的一种,是心跳速度或心跳力量的异常。如果你患有心房纤颤,心脏的上心室以快速,抽搐的方式收缩,导致不规则,不协调的心跳。心脏是一个肌肉发达的器官,由四个腔室组成:左右心房,左右心室。在正常的心跳中,心腔以有节奏的方式收缩和舒张,使血液在全身流动。右心房从身体收集血液,右心室将血液泵入肺部,肺部为血液输送氧气并清除血液中的二氧化碳。与此同时,左心房接收来自肺部的血液,左心室将血液泵出,为身体组织提供氧气和营养。每次心跳开始于心脏的“天生”起搏器,称为窦房结(SA),位于右心房壁。电信号从这里开始,传遍两个心房,导致心房收缩,将血液推入心室。当心房舒张时,信号通过房室(AV,或称为房室结)传递到心室壁,导致心室壁收缩。心室舒张,完成一次完整的心跳。窦房结立即产生一个新的电脉冲,重复这个模式。在心房颤动中,电信号来自心房和附近肺静脉的不寻常位置。这些异常信号随意地通过心房,导致心房在快速颤抖和抽搐的混乱中收缩。这些信号冲击房室结,导致心室迅速收缩。即使在更快的速度下,心室收缩也无法跟上快速的心房收缩,从而导致不协调的心跳。在这些不规则的收缩之后,心房可能不会完全排空。当血液聚集在心房时,可能会形成血栓。血栓会从心脏流出,通过颈部流入大脑,导致卒中。血液聚集在心室剥夺了身体组织的氧气和营养。如果心脏一直不能泵出足够的血液来满足身体的需要,你就会患上心力衰竭。医生可能会用抗心律失常的药物治疗心房颤动。抗心律失常药物控制发送到心房的电信号,帮助心脏保持有规律的跳动。治疗后,你的心跳可能仍然过快。在这种情况下,医生可能会给你β受体阻滞剂,将你的心率降低到正常水平。此外,医生可能会推荐恢复心脏正常节律和速率的操作,如心脏复律,消融或放置起搏器。在电转复中,医生会对心脏进行一次电击,以恢复正常的心律。在消融过程中,医生会使用无线电波能量来破坏产生异常电信号的心脏组织。在起搏器放置中,医生会在靠近心脏的皮肤下植入一个小装置来调节心脏节奏。

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