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良性前列腺增生

ID: ANH13114chis
医学动画文字记录:如果你患有良性前列腺增生(BPH),则你的前列腺增大了。前列腺是男性的一个胡桃大小的腺体。位于膀胱下方,包裹着尿道,尿液和精液通过尿道排出体外。精囊和前列腺产生的液体与精子混合形成精液。在正常排尿过程中,尿液从膀胱流出,先流经尿道前列腺部,然后通过尿道的其余部分排出体外。由于未知的原因,随着年龄的增长,前列腺可能会增大。如果你患有良性前列腺增生,前列腺可能会增大到使尿道前列腺部狭窄或阻塞。因此,当你排尿时,肿大的前列腺可能会减慢或阻止尿液排出。良性前列腺增生的症状包括尿频或尿急,特别是在夜间,尿线细或中断,排尿紧张。随着时间的推移,未经治疗的良性前列腺增生可能会导致以下并发症:无法排尿、对膀胱和肾脏的损害、膀胱感染、膀胱结石和尿失禁。如果你患有轻度或无症状的良性前列腺增生,医生可能会建议你进行观察,包括每年检查前列腺,以确保症状或健康状况没有恶化。如果你有中度的症状,对你产生了困扰,医生可能会建议药物治疗,比如α受体阻滞剂。α受体阻滞剂使膀胱颈部和尿道的肌肉组织舒张,以改善尿流。5 α-还原酶抑制剂也可以通过缩小前列腺的大小来改善几个月的尿流。你可能会接受两种药物的联合治疗。如果药物治疗不能缓解症状,医生可能会建议进行经尿道前列腺切除术(TURP)。在这个手术中,医生将通过尿道插入膀胱镜抵达前列腺。然后,通过膀胱镜插入称为前列腺切除器的金属线来切除组织,扩大尿道。这类手术的其他微创方法包括通过膀胱镜插入的器械产生的激光、微波、电波或电能来切除部分或全部前列腺。如果前列腺非常大,医生可能会建议开放性前列腺切除术。在开放性前列腺切除术中,医生会在下腹部做一个切口。在暴露前列腺后,医生会在它的外囊上做一个切口。接下来,切除前列腺内的组织,用缝线缝合外囊切口。最后,缝合皮肤切口。良性前列腺增生无法预防,但以下生活方式的改变可以减轻症状:避免服用导致排尿困难的药物,如抗组胺药和减充血药;睡前几小时不喝水;避免饮酒或含有咖啡因的饮料;试着通过两次排尿来排空膀胱。如果采取两次排尿来排空膀胱的话,一次排尿后等几分钟,然后再试着排第二次。

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