MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: An undescended testicle is a condition where one or both male reproductive glands have not moved down from a baby's belly or abdomen into the scrotum. Normally, before birth, a male baby's testicles grow inside his abdomen. The testicles, along with their blood vessels, travel down through tube like structures called inguinal canals into the scrotum. Sometimes, for unknown reasons, one or both testicles fail to move down into the scrotum before birth. An undescended testicle can remain in the abdomen or in the inguinal canals or just above the scrotum or they may migrate to the base of the penis or other areas. Half of the time, the testicles descend to the scrotum within 90 days after birth, but if they don't descend, this person may have problems having children when he is an adult. It may also increase the risk for developing testicular cancer. Undescended testicles often require an operation called an orchiopexy. The procedure is recommended within the first year after birth. If the baby's testicle is in or below the inguinal canal, an open surgery may be performed. To begin, the surgeon will make a small incision in the groin. The testicle will be freed from some of the surrounding tissues. The surgeon will make a second incision in the scrotum. The testicle, along with its blood vessels, will be pulled down into the scrotum where stitches will hold it in place. Finally, the incisions will be closed with stitches. If the testicle is in the abdomen, a laparoscopic orchiopexy may be performed. To begin, the surgeon will make two or three tiny incisions in the baby's abdomen. Small tubes for a camera and surgical instruments will be inserted through these incisions. The surgeon will use the instruments to free the testicle from some of the surrounding tissue. Then, another incision will be made in the bottom of the scrotum. The surgeon will insert an instrument into this incision to reach up and pull the testicle down into the scrotum. Stitches will hold the testicle in place within the scrotum. Finally, the incisions will be closed with skin glue or tape. Sometimes, the blood vessels going to an undescended testicle aren't long enough to allow the testicle to be pulled down into the scrotum. In this case, the baby may need two surgical procedures. During the first procedure, some of the shorter blood vessels will be tied off. As time passes, other blood vessels will take over, supplying blood to the testicle. Then, in the second procedure, the surgeon will divide the shorter blood vessels, which aren't needed anymore, and the testicle will be moved down into the scrotum. Stitches will hold the testicle in place within the scrotum. To find out more about orchiopexy procedures, talk to your doctor.