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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection81124
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MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, and larynx. As air passes through them, these structures provide physical and immunologic barriers to infectious pathogens and other debris. In the nose, viruses, bacteria, and other debris stick to the mucus in the nasal passageway, while the nasal mucosa, warms and humidifies the air. The shape of the pharynx forces air to take a 90-degree turn downward. Larger airborne particles can't make the turn, so they get caught in the mucosa of the posterior wall instead. The palatine and pharyngeal tonsil contain immune cells that engulf and destroy pathogens that land on them. Air then passes through the larynx on its way to the lower respiratory tract. The common cold, also known as nasopharyngitis or acute rhinitis is the most common viral upper respiratory tract infection. Cold viruses, most commonly the rhinovirus, enter the body when contaminated hands touch the nose or mouth, or when virus-filled droplets in the air are inhaled. Then the virus invades the mucus membrane of the upper airway, resulting in an inflammation of the invaded areas. Inflammation of the nasal membranes can result in excessive mucus secretion, nasal congestion, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, itching, and sneezing. Inflammation of the pharyngeal lining can result in a sore or scratchy throat, and painful or difficult swallowing. Laryngeal involvement can result in a cough. There is no cure for the common cold, so treatments focus on alleviating symptoms. Common lifestyle modifications include rest, and increased fluid intake. Medical options include Ibuprofen for inflammation, pain, and fever. Acetaminophen, for pain and fever. And oral decongestants, or nasal sprays to relieve nasal symptoms. Antibiotics are not used as they're only effective against bacteria, not viruses. ♪ [music] ♪

ANM11031 03:27

Last Updated: Apr 24th, 2020

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